Genres in academic writing: Essays (2023)

Almost all students will at some time be expected to write an essay, or some other kind of argument, e.g. a review or discussion section, in a longer piece of writing. In English, an essay is a piece of argumentative writing several paragraphs long written about one topic, usually based on your reading. The aim of the essay should be deduced strictly from the wording of the title or question (See Academic Writing: Understanding the Question), and needs to be defined at the beginning. The purpose of an essay is for you to say something for yourself using the ideas of the subject, for you to present ideas you have learned in your own way. The emphasis should be on working with other people's ideas, rather than reproducing their words, but your own voice should show clearly. The ideas and people that you refer to need to made explicit by a system of referencing.

According to Linda Flower (1990, p. v), "students are reading to create a text of their own, trying to integrate information from sources with ideas of their own, and attempting to do so under the guidance of a purpose."

2. Main text

English essays are linear:

Genres in academic writing: Essays (1)

- they start at the beginning and finish at the end, with every partcontributing to the main line of argument, without digressions or repetition.Writers are responsible for making their line of argument clear and presentingit in an orderly fashion so that the reader can follow. Each paragraphdiscusses one major point and each paragraph should lead directly to the next.The paragraphs are tied together with an introduction and a conclusion.

The main text of the essay has three main parts:

    1. An introduction
    2. A main body
    3. A conclusion

      I. The introduction.

      The introduction consists of two parts:

    1. It should include a few general statements about the subject to provide a background to your essay and to attract the reader's attention. It should try to explain why you are writing the essay. It may include a definition of terms in the context of the essay, etc.
    2. It should also include a statement of the specific subdivisions of the topic and/or indication of how the topic is going to be tackled in order to specifically address the question.

      It should introduce the central idea or the main purpose of thewriting.

      II. The main body.

      The main body consists of one or more paragraphs of ideas and arguments. Each paragraphdevelops a subdivision of the topic. The paragraphs of the essay contain themain ideas and arguments of the essay together with illustrations or examples.The paragraphs are linked in order to connect the ideas. The purpose of theessay must be made clear and the reader must be able to follow itsdevelopment.

      III. The conclusion.

      The conclusion includes the writer's final points.

    1. It should recall the issues raised in the introduction and draw together the points made in the main body
    2. and explain the overall significance of the conclusions. What general points can be drawn from the essay as a whole?

      It should clearly signal to the reader that the essay is finished andleave a clear impression that the purpose of the essay has been achieved.

    Essays are organised differently according to their purpose. Essays can be divided into the following main types.

    1. The descriptive essay

    a. Description of object or place

    b. Describing a sequence of events.

    c. Describing a process

    d. Describing and explaining

    2. The argument essay

    a. The balanced view

    b. The persuasive essay

    c. The to what extent essay.

    3. Compare and contrast essays

    a. The contrast essay

    b. The compare essay

    c. The compare and contrast essays

    1. The descriptive essay

    a. Description of object or place

    Describe essays require you to state the appearance of something, or to state the major characteristics of it. Note the word state i.e. you are not asked to comment on the subject or to give your personal point of view on it. Questions are often introduced by:

    Describe ....
    Narrate...
    Tell....

    Plan:

    Introduction

    major aspects of the subject.

    description of aspect A

    description of aspect B

    etc.

    Conclusion

    See:

    b. Describing a sequence of events.

    Describing a sequence of events is simply telling a story.

    State clearly when events happened or how one event caused another. Questions may be introduced by:

    Give an account of...
    Trace...
    Examine developments in...

    Intoduction

    First situation

    then A happened

    then B happened

    etc.

    Final situation

    Conclusion

    See:

    c. Describing a process

    This is like telling a story but here the connections between the facts must be clearly shown and explained. Group the events into steps or stages.

    Examples of such questions are :

    Explain/What is the connection between...
    Describe the procedures by which...

    Definition of process

    Main equipment/Main steps

    Step One

    leads to

    Step Two

    leads to

    Step Three

    Conclusion

    Summary of process

    See:

    d. Describing and explaining

    Some of the words and phrases which introduce this type of description are:

    Explain the causes/reasons....
    Account for....
    Analyse the causes....
    Comment on (the reasons for)....
    Show that....
    Show why...
    Examine the effect of....
    Suggest reasons for....
    Why did...?
    What are the implications of...?
    Discuss the causes of....
    Discuss the reasons for....

    When we are asked to describe or explain causes, factors, functions or results, the examiner wants us to group our facts. Similar causes are put together, for instance the economic causes of a situation. There are basically two main ways to organise this type of essay.

    The question is "Describe the causes of A. Illustrate your answer by specific examples."

    i.

    Introduction to causes of A

    Cause 1 + example

    Effects 1

    Cause 2 with example

    Effects 2

    Cause 3 with examples

    Effects 3

    Cause 4 with example

    Effects 4

    etc.

    Conclusion

    ii.

    Introduction to causes of A

    Causes + examples

    Transition

    Effects

    Conclusion

    See: Academic Writing: Functions - Expressing reasons and explanations / cause and effect

    2. The argument essay

    There are two main methods of presenting an argument, and in general the one you choose will depend on exactly how the essay title is worded.

    a. The balanced view

    If the essay title begins with something like:

    Give the arguments for and against....
    Assess the importance of....
    Examine the arguments for and against....
    What are the advantages and disadvantages of...?
    Evaluate....
    Critically examine the statement that....
    To what extent is...true?

    or even just the word

    Discuss....

    then it is clear that a balanced essay is required. That is to say you should present both sides of an argument, without necessarily committing yourself to any points of view, which should always be based on evidence, until the final paragraph.

    At its simplest your essay plan will be as follows:

    Introduce the argument to the reader.

    e.g. why it is particularly relevant topic nowadays
    or refer directly to some comments that have been voiced on it recently.

    Reasons against the argument

    Reasons in favour of the argument

    After summarising the two sides,
    state your own point of view,
    and explain why you think as you do

    See: Academic Writing: Functions - Arguing and discussing; - Expressing degrees of certainty; - Generalising; - Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences; - Giving examples

    b. The persuasive essay

    This second type of argumentative essay involves stating your own point of view immediately, and trying to convince the reader by reasoned argument that you are right. Perhaps the essay title will begin with something like:

    Give your views on....
    What do you think about...?
    Do you agree that...?
    Consider whether....

    Or perhaps the title itself will be so controversial that everyone will hold a definite opinion in one direction or another.

    The form of the essay will be, in outline, as follows:

    Introduce the topic briefly in general terms,

    and then state your own opinion.

    Explain what you plan to prove in the essay.

    Reasons against the argument.

    Dispose briefly of the main objections to your case.

    Reasons for your argument

    the arguments to support your own view,

    with evidence and examples.

    Conclusion - Do not repeat your point of view again.

    End your essay with something memorable

    e.g. a quotation or a direct question.

    See: Academic Writing: Functions - Arguing and discussing; - Expressing degrees of certainty; - Generalising; - Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences; - Giving examples

    c. The to what extent essay

    In this type of essay the examiner is giving you a statement. It is obviously true but truth is never 100%. You must decide how true it is? Are there some areas where you disagree with the statement. If so, describe how far you agree, and your points of agreement and disagreement. Words used in the question are:

    To what extent ....
    How true ....
    How far do you agree....

    A possible answer structure is:

    Introduction to problem

    Aspect 1 - true

    Aspect 1 - false

    Aspect 2 - true

    Aspect 2 - false

    Aspect 3 - true

    Aspect 3 - false

    etc

    Conclusion

    a ‘subtraction’ sum

    See: Academic Writing: Functions - Arguing and discussing; - Expressing degrees of certainty; - Generalising; - Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences; - Giving examples

    3. Compare and contrast essays.

    a The Contrast essay

    Contrast or distinguish between questions usually present you with two or more terms, instruments, concepts or procedures that are closely connected, and sometimes confused. The purpose of the essay is to explain the differences between them. The question may be of the form:

    Contrast ....
    Distinguish between ...
    What is the difference between....
    What are the differences between....
    How are ... and ... different?

    A suitable answer structure would be:

    Introduction to differences between A and B

    Contrast A & B in terms of first difference

    Contrast A & B in terms of second difference

    Contrast A & B in terms of third difference

    etc

    Conclusion

    See: Academic Writing: Functions - Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences; - Defining; - Generalising; - Giving examples

    b. The Compare essay

    Compare questions usually present you with two or more terms, instruments, concepts or procedures that are closely connected, and sometimes confused. The purpose of the essay is to explain the similarities between them. Words used are:

    Compare ....
    What features do ... and ... have in common?
    What are the similarities between....
    How are ... and ... similar?

    A suitable answer structure would be:

    Introduction to similarities between A and B

    Compare A & B

    in terms of first similarity

    Compare A & B

    in terms of second similarity

    Compare A & B

    in terms of third similarity

    etc.

    Conclusion

    See: Academic Writing: Functions - Comparing and contrasting: similarities and differences; - Defining; - Generalising; - Giving examples

    c. The compare and contrast essay

    Compare and contrast essays require you to indicate areas in which the things to be compared are similar and different.

    Compare and contrast....

    There are two main ways to answer such questions:

    i.

    Introduction to differences and similarities between A and B

    Difference 1

    Difference 2

    Difference 3

    etc.

    Transition

    Similarity 1

    Similarity 2

    Similarity 3

    etc.

    Conclusion

    ii.

    Introduction to differences and similarities between A and B

    Aspect 1 - similarities

    Aspect 1 - differences

    Aspect 2 - similarities

    Aspect 2 - differences

    Aspect 3 - similarities

    Aspect 3 - differences

    etc

    Conclusion

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