Insulin Types: Their Peak Times and Durations (2022)

Insulin is a hormone every living mammal needs in order to stay alive. In those of us with diabetes, insulin is either something we don’t produce at all or something we struggle to produce enough of.

Without adequate insulin — whether it’s from your pancreas, a syringe, a pen, or an insulin pump — your blood sugar will rise to dangerously high levels. Without enough insulin, you will get very sick.

Let’s take a closer look at insulin, how it works, and the many options available today for people with diabetes.

Insulin Types: Their Peak Times and Durations (1)

Table of Contents

What is insulin and how does it work?

Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It’s secreted when the “GLUT2 transporter” detects a change in the “serum glucose level.”

In a non-diabetic body

In a non-diabetic body, the pancreas produces insulin in response to the food you eat. As your body breaks down your meal and converts some of it to glucose, insulin is responsible for making it possible to use that glucose as energy for the body.

The pancreas also releases a constant small drip of insulin, because the human body requires a constant presence of insulin in order to function properly.

In a person with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes

In a person with type 1 diabetes: the pancreas constantly tries to produce beta cells in order to make insulin, but the immune system continues to attack and destroy most or all of those beta cells.

For those with type 1 diabetes, the evolution of the disease and the attack on the beta cells occurs very quickly, which means people get sick very quickly. Often mistaken at first for the lingering flu, a simple blood test and urine test can determine and diagnose type 1 diabetes.

Immediately upon diagnosis, patients should begin taking pharmaceutical insulin via pump, pen, or syringe.

In a person with type 2 diabetes: the body is either struggling to produce a normal amount of insulin (for reasons still unknown), or the body is struggling with severe insulin resistance which makes it difficult to manage healthy blood sugar levels with the available amount of insulin.

For those with type 2, the struggle to properly produce or make use of their own insulin is usually a slower process, sometimes taking years before you show strong enough symptoms to warrant an HbA1c test,a diagnosis, and eventual treatment.

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Basal and Bolus insulin

Regardless of type of diabetes, those needing multiple daily injections will need background insulin (basal) as well as insulin to cover meals and corrections (bolus).

Depending on which delivery mechanism is used, the basal can be a long-acting insulin or a rapid-acting insulin while boluses will always be rapid-acting or short-acting insulin (more about the different insulins in the next section).

Types of insulin

Let’s look at each type of insulin and all the pertinent information that goes along with it, including onset (how fast it starts to work in the body), peak times (when the insulin works the strongest), and duration (how long it is active in the body), and more.

Finding the ideal combination and regimen for your body can take a great deal of time. It’s important to approach any changes in your insulin regimen with patience, and additional blood sugar tests for safety.

Rapid-acting insulin

NameGeneric NameManufacturerOnset (min)Peak (min)Duration (hrs)
NovologInsulin aspartNovo Nordisk15602 – 4
HumalogInsulin lisproLilly15602 – 4
ApidraInsulin glulsineSanofi15602 – 4
FiaspInsulin aspartNovo Nordisk230 – 603 – 5
Afrezza (inhaled)N/AMannkind1235 – 45 1.5 – 3

Chemically, there is a slight difference between the amino acid structures of each insulin.

Fiasp is the fastest insulin on the market, but switching to it from Humalog or Novolog will require a learning and adjustment phase.

Fiasp is almost chemically identical to Novolog, except it has the addition of vitamin B3 (niacinimide) which enables it to start working in your bloodstream within 2.5 minutes of dosing. It also contains the amino acid L-arginine, which is supposed to make it more stable in the few hours after dosing.

When comparing Novolog to Humalog, some patients report a noticeable difference in the two but research hasn’t determined any significant difference in their efficacy.

Apidra is only approved for 48 hours in an insulin pump before requiring a site change; Novolog, Humalog, and Fiasp are approved for 72 hours.

Inhaled Insulin (Afrezza)

A newer technology, this type of insulin is used in a similar manner to an inhaler and is only available in a rapid-acting form. However, inhaled insulin cannot replace pumps, pods, pens, or syringes for people with type 1 diabetes.

Today’s current inhaled insulin technology is limited to doses of 4, 8 or 12 units at a time (not a one-to-one comparison to 1 IU of other rapid-acting insulins), and is only intended to cover your needs during a meal or correction.

While some type 2s who only require mealtime insulin may find that inhaled insulin covers their needs, anyone with type 1 diabetes would also need a long-acting basal insulin and potentially also another short or rapid-acting insulin.

(Video) Insulin peak, onset, and duration memory trick

Short-acting insulin

NameGeneric NameManufacturer Onset (min)Peak (hrs)Duration (hrs)
Humilin R / Novolin RRegularLilly / Novo30 – 602 – 46 – 8

Unlike rapid-acting insulin, short-acting insulin is delivered only via injection and requires more planning for meals because it doesn’t begin working for nearly an hour, and doesn’t peak until more than two hours after injection.

This short-acting insulin is not commonly used today since rapid-acting insulin provides much better insulin coverage for meals.

Using short-acting insulin also means you musteat according to its peak, requiring you to plan ahead every meal, leaving little room for flexibility.

It is making a bit of a comeback for those who follow strict low carb diets because high-protein and high-fat meals digest slowly. A rapid-acting insulin may then be used for corrections or higher-carb meals.

In hospitals, patients will find that when receiving insulin via IV, short-acting insulin is still commonly used based on traditional “sliding scale” insulin dosing protocols.

Note: Regular insulin is still relevant in the United States because it can be purchased at a low price in Walmart and therefore is an option for people who don’t have health insurance.

Intermediate-acting insulin

NameGeneric NameManufacturerOnset (hrs)Peak (hrs)Duration (hrs)
NPHIsophaneLilly / Novo1 – 3 4 – 610 – 16

NPH is commonly used as a basal insulin due to the lengthy amount of time it stays in your system. However, because it only lasts 10 to 16 hours, it’s usually given twice per day — once in the morning, and once at night.

With its peak taking longer to occur, there is a greater fluctuation in blood sugars through the day as opposed to longer-acting insulin varieties. To manage this, patients using this insulin must follow a strict eating schedule, and eat a very precise amount of carbohydrates at precise times of day.

NPH is commonly mixed with the rapid or shorter-acting insulins mentioned above but is being used less and less these days. Thankfully, better long-acting options are available today!

Note: While NPH insulin is not commonly used in the US, it is another insulin that can be purchased at a low price in Walmart.

Long-acting basal insulin

NameGeneric NameManufacturerOnset (hrs)Peak (hrs)Duration (hrs)
Lantus/BasaglarInsulin glargineSanofi / Lilly1 – 2624
LevemirInsulin detemirNovo Nordisk1 – 38 – 1024
TresibaInsulin degludecNovo Nordisk1 – 2 noneUp to 42

The long-acting insulin varieties are used in a similar fashion to the basal insulin in the pump, providing a constant presence of background insulin just like the pancreas would drip, drip, drip.

For Lantus and Levemir, some patients will find it beneficial to cut their total dose in half, taking one injection in the morning and another at night, 12 hours later.

Some studies have demonstrated a lower risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia and major hypoglycemia in Levemir than Lantus.

Most patients seem to report in forums and online discussions that their body responds more favorably to one type of insulin over the other.

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Lantus is also much more acidic than Levemir, which can cause a mild-to-moderate burning sensation during injection for some people.

Tresiba is the new kid on the block having come to the market in 2016, but also has demonstrated to cause fewer hypoglycemic events than Lantus or Levemir. Tresiba also works in the body for up to 42 hours. While it’s still taken once per day, Tresiba is said to provide a much more stable and constant action compared to Lantus because Lantus has a half-life of only 12 hours which means its efficacy peters out much sooner than Tresiba.

Toujeo is a newer but not nearly as popular form of insulin glargine, like Lantus, but is a more concentrated version with triple the potency. It is only approved for patients aged 18 and older. While some patients like it, many have reported in the comments on this article that they’ve experienced very unpredictable fluctuations in their blood sugar levels after the first few weeks of taking it.

Insulin delivery options for people with diabetes

Once you are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and for some diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, it’s critical that you begin taking insulin to bring your blood sugar levels back to a healthier, safer range.

Only a few decades ago, there was only one option: sharpening and boiling the same syringe over and over and over to then take injections with insulin that dictated exactly when and how much you could eat. These insulins were first derived from pigs and cows.

Today, thankfully, we have a slew of options for both the type of insulin we want to take and how we want to take it.

Injections via pen or syringe

This method has been around the longest, since the discovery of insulin in 1921 by Frederick Banting and Charles Best.

Insulin is injected subcutaneously in one of many injection sites on the body: abdomen, thighs, upper arms, or butt. This can be done with a pre-filled insulin pen or by using a syringe to draw up the desired amount of insulin from a traditional vial. Typically, users will need a long-acting basal insulin paired with a rapid-acting insulin for mealtimes.

While insulin pens and syringes cannot offer the extremely precise measured doses a pump or pod can administer, they are certainly the most affordable method of insulin delivery. For those who don’t like the bulk of wearing a pump or pod, using a pen or syringe can be just as an effective way of managing blood sugars.

Pump or pod

An insulin pump is a small, electronic device that contains a battery, insulin reservoir, pump, and tubing that ends in a needle or cannula to deliver the insulin into the body.

The device is worn on your belt or in your pocket while the tubing connects the insulin reservoir to an “infusion site” in your subcutaneous flesh (your body fat), where the insulin is delivered.

Insulin pods are more compact and sit directly on the body without any additional exterior tubing. A separate hand-held device is used to tell the pod when to deliver insulin.

Both a pump and pod are programmed to deliver rapid-acting insulin 24 hours a day based on each person’s individual needs. For insulin needs during meals or to make corrections to high blood sugar levels, the user would simply use the buttons on the pump or on the handheld device for the pod to give precise doses of insulin.

The three greatest benefits to delivering insulin via pumpor pod, compared to a syringe or pen, are:

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  1. The ability to deliver extremely precise dosing options, down to the 0.025 unit.
  2. The ability to suspend or quickly reduce insulin delivery to compensate for variables like exercise, or for a picky toddler who decided halfway through dinner to stop eating.
  3. The freedom to eat something, take insulin and then eat more just a bit later all with the push of a button rather than another injection.

While an insulin pump is the most advanced insulin delivery option available today, it isn’t necessarily the best fit for everyone.

Insulin pumps and pods do come with a few flaws, including:

  1. The supplies for pumps and pods are far more expensive than syringes and pens.
  2. A mechanical or physical error that results in severe high blood sugars and requires a new infusion site set-up.
  3. Every 3 to 4 days, the user must take time to remove the current infusion site and set-up a new one.

If you’re curious about insulin pump therapy, talk with your doctor about the best options for you! It’s certainly worth a try, and if you don’t like it, you can always go back to injections via pen or syringe.

For a more in-depth look at the difference between insulinpumps and manual injections, you can read my post on why I choose manual injections over an insulin pump.

Determining the right insulin doses for you

The most challenging part of living with diabetes and requiring insulin via syringe, pen, pump, or pod is determining just how much insulinyour body needs at certain times of day, and for certain types and amounts of food.

This is a never-ending process of fine-tuning, adjusting, testing, andexperimenting. Simply losing 5 pounds or gaining 5 pounds can have a significant impact on the amount of insulin you need.

Making changes in how you eat can mean you suddenly (or gradually) need more or less insulin. A stressful day or an entire stressful year can have a tremendous impact on your insulin needs.

Thevariables are endless.

For assistance in adjusting your insulin doses to meet your body’s current needs and prevent frequent high and low blood sugars, it’s imperative that you work with your medical team.

Living with diabetes is no simple task, and the medical technology and pharmaceutical drugs we require in order to stay alive are complicated and expensive. Above all else, remember that no one does diabetes perfectly. Perfect blood sugars are something we might strive for, but without a healthy pancreas and immune system, no one should expect perfection.

Dothe best you can, and never give up.

Suggested next posts:

  • Insulin Side Effects: What You Need to Know
  • Dosing Insulin for Dietary Fat: How Fat Affects Your Blood Sugar

If you found this guide to diabetic diarrhea useful, please sign up for our newsletter (and get a free chapter from theFit With Diabetes eBook) using the form below. We send out a weekly newsletter with the latest posts and recipes from Diabetes Strong.

FAQs

What are the 4 main types of insulin? ›

What are the 3 types of insulin? ›

There are three main groups of insulins: Fast-acting, Intermediate-acting and Long-acting insulin.

Which insulin has a peak of 4/12 hours? ›

NPH insulin is an intermediate-acting insulin that usually starts to work (has an onset) about 1 to 3 hours after injection, peaks 4 to 12 hours later, and is effective for about 12 to 16 hours.

What is the peak time for regular insulin? ›

Terms To Know
Insulin TypeOnsetPeak Time
Rapid acting​15 minutes1 hour
Rapid-acting inhaled10 to 15 minutes30 minutes
Regular/short acting30 minutes2 to 3 hours
Intermediate acting2 to 4 hours4 to 12 hours
3 more rows
25 Mar 2021

What are the 3 short acting insulins? ›

Three common rapid-acting insulins are: Aspart (marketed as NovoLog, Fiasp (or faster aspart), and the NovoLog FlexPen) Lispro (marketed as Humalog, Admelog, and the Humalog KwikPen) Glulisine (marketed as Apidra and the Apidra SoloStar Pen)

What is the fastest insulin? ›

Rapid-acting insulin (Novolog, Humalog, Apidra), also known as fast-acting insulin, begins to work soon after you inject it and stops working 2 to 4 hours later. Rapid-acting insulin is injected before a meal to prevent your blood glucose from rising, and to correct high blood sugars.

What is the peak of Lantus insulin? ›

Long-Acting Insulin

This insulin group has an onset of action between 1-2 hours and a peak action time that varies between 6-20 hours. Note that Lantus® does not peak, but provides a steady level of insulin throughout the duration time. Total duration of action is anywhere between 20-36 hours.

What is the strongest insulin? ›

Tresiba is sometimes called an ultra-long-acting insulin since its effects can last over 24 hours. In fact, it's the longest acting insulin available. The best long-acting insulin for you can depend on your preferences, cost, and other factors.

When does Levemir peak? ›

Levemir generally reaches a peak concentration in your blood six to eight hours after you take it. The concentration of Levemir in your blood can remain close to peak levels for up to 24 hours.

What are the common insulins? ›

Injectable Insulin Medications
  • Medication name: Insulin glulisine (Apidra®) ...
  • Medication name: Insulin aspart (Novolog®) ...
  • Medication name: Insulin lispro U-100/U-200 (Humalog®) ...
  • Medication name: Regular insulin (Novolin R, Humulin R) ...
  • Medication name: NPH insulin (Novolin N, Humulin N)
14 Jan 2018

Which insulin lasts up to 24 hours? ›

insulin glargine (Lantus), lasts up to 24 hours. insulin detemir (Levemir), lasts 18 to 23 hours. insulin glargine (Toujeo), lasts more than 24 hours.

Which insulin has a peak of 2 4 hours? ›

Onset, Peak, and Duration of Action of Human Insulin Preparations*
Insulin PreparationOnset of ActionPeak Action
Intermediate-acting
Insulin isophane (NPH)‡About 2 hours4–12 hours
U-500 regular30 minutes4–8 hours
Long-acting
19 more rows

Which insulin has a duration of 16 to 24 hours? ›

Common types are NPH such as Humulin NÒ with a duration of 12-16 hours and Novolin NÒ with a duration up to 24 hours. Long acting has an effect for 24 hours, depending on the type, so it is only taken once per day. This basal insulin has no peak.

Which insulin has the shortest time duration? ›

Humalog is a fast-acting insulin that starts working faster and works for a shorter period of time than regular human insulin. Humalog is taken within 15 minutes before eating or right after eating a meal.

When does Humulin R peak? ›

U500 Humulin R insulin onset (when the insulin starts working) is about 30-45 minutes. U500 Humulin R peak of action (when the insulin is at its strongest) varies from 2-4 hours.

What is the most popular insulin? ›

There are different types of insulin depending on how quickly they work, when they peak and how long they last. Insulin is available in different strengths; the most common is U-100.

Which insulin is given once daily? ›

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies of insulin glargine had shown that it has an onset of action that ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 h while its duration of action is 18 to 26 h [1]. Because of its long duration of action insulin glargine is usually prescribed once daily.

Why is long acting insulin given at night? ›

Aims/hypothesis: Insulin glargine is a long-acting human insulin analog often administered at bedtime to patients with type 2 diabetes. It reduces fasting blood glucose levels more efficiently and with less nocturnal hypoglycemic events compared with human neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin.

Which insulin is best for high blood sugar? ›

Long, ultra-long or intermediate-acting insulin helps the body use this glucose and keeps glucose levels from rising too high. Examples of these insulins are glargine (Lantus, Toujeo, others), detemir (Levemir), degludec (Tresiba) and NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N, Novolin ReliOn Insulin N).

What is a unit of insulin? ›

Officially, one unit is defined at the biological equivalent of 34.7 micrograms of pure crystalline insulin, a measure that comes from the dawn of insulin, and just happens to be the amount required to induce hypoglycemia in a rabbit (don't ask).

What insulin is immediate acting? ›

The most common type of intermediate-acting insulin is: NPH (marketed as Humulin N and the Humulin N Pen) NPH (marketed as Novolin N and the Novolin N FlexPen)

Is Humulin R fast acting? ›

Yes, Humulin R is a short-acting insulin. Humulin R is considered “short-acting” because it takes about 30 minutes to start working after it's injected. So, you'll take doses of Humulin R about 30 minutes before your meals.

How many types of insulin are available? ›

There are six main types of insulin available. Rapid-acting: These include Apidra, Humalog, and Novolog. They have an onset of less than 15 minutes, peak in 30 to 90 minutes, and duration of two to four hours. Regular (short-acting): These include Humulin R and Novolin R.

Who uses insulin type 1 or 2? ›

The two main types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes (which used to be called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), the body completely stops making insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections (or use an insulin pump) to survive.

What is the peak time for tresiba? ›

Tresiba's half-life is 25 hours and has no obvious peak. Tresiba's long duration of action provides fairly consistent blood sugar control throughout the day while only being dosed once daily. There is no generic version of Tresiba available.

When does NovoRapid peak? ›

When NovoRapid is injected subcutaneously, the onset of action will occur within 10 to 20 minutes of injection. The maximum effect is exerted between 1 and 3 hours after injection.

What is the peak time and duration for lispro insulin? ›

Lispro: Starts working within 0 to 15 minutes after administration. Peaks in 30 to 90 minutes. Keeps working for less than five hours (usually two to four hours).

Which insulin lasts longest? ›

The insulin that has the longest duration of action, which is the length of time it works, is usually either the intermediate-acting insulins such as NPH insulin (human), or the long-acting insulins such as insulin glargine (Lantus) or insulin determir (Levemir). Their duration of action can be up to 24 hours long.

What is the difference between 70/30 and 30 70 insulin? ›

The main difference between these two insulins is that Novolog 70/30 - contains an intermediate acting and a very fast acting insulin, whereas Novolin 70/30 contains an intermediate acting insulin and a short acting insulin.

What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 insulin? ›

People with type 1 diabetes don't produce insulin. You can think of it as not having a key. People with type 2 diabetes don't respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don't make enough insulin.

How long does Humalog take to peak? ›

The onset of Humalog's action is 15 minutes after it's injected. This means that the action time starts 15 minutes after you take a Humalog injection. And the drug's action time lasts about 2 to 4 hours, with a peak effect after 1 hour. (Peak effect is when the drug has its maximum effect in your body.)

Which is better Lantus or Basaglar? ›

Basaglar and Lantus are both equally effective at lowering blood sugar in patients with diabetes and they are identical structurally. Clinical studies conducted by the manufacturer showed that Basaglar is safe, effective and similar to Lantus, so you can feel comfortable using either product.

Which insulin is better Lantus or Levemir? ›

Levemir (detemir) and Lantus (glargine) are both long acting insulins and no difference has been found in their efficacy however, weight gain and night-time hypoglycemia appear to be less with Levemir.

What is another name for insulin? ›

Regular insulin
Clinical data
Trade namesHumulin R, Novolin R, Actrapid, others
Other namesinsulin injection (soluble), neutral insulin, regular human insulin, human insulin (regular), Toronto insulin
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa682611
13 more rows

What is insulin generic name? ›

List of Insulin:
Drug NameAvg. RatingReviews
Humalog (Pro) Generic name: insulin lispro7.219 reviews
Novolin N (Pro) Generic name: insulin isophane7.67 reviews
Humulin R U-500 (Concentrated) (Pro) Generic name: insulin regular7.17 reviews
Novolin R (Pro) Generic name: insulin regular7.36 reviews
38 more rows
14 Mar 2018

What is the most common insulin? ›

Insulin is available in different strengths; the most common is U-100.

What are the 4 functions of insulin? ›

Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted by the β cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and maintains normal blood glucose levels by facilitating cellular glucose uptake, regulating carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and promoting cell division and growth through its mitogenic effects.

What is the best insulin to take? ›

Tresiba is a great long-acting insulin option. It can be used for blood sugar control in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. It lasts the longest compared to other long-acting insulins. Long-acting insulins work similarly well at controlling blood sugar.

Which insulin is fastest? ›

Humalog is a fast-acting insulin that starts working faster and works for a shorter period of time than regular human insulin. Humalog is taken within 15 minutes before eating or right after eating a meal.

What is Lantus peak time? ›

Lantus doesn't have a peak time. (Peak time is the amount of time it takes for a drug to reach its maximum effect.) The effect of Lantus remains steady for up to 24 hours after it's injected. The duration of this drug's effect in your body is about 24 hours.

What insulin acts the fastest? ›

Rapid-acting insulin (Novolog, Humalog, Apidra), also known as fast-acting insulin, begins to work soon after you inject it and stops working 2 to 4 hours later. Rapid-acting insulin is injected before a meal to prevent your blood glucose from rising, and to correct high blood sugars.

What is insulin and its types? ›

Types of insulin

These include : Rapid-acting insulins that start to work within 15 minutes and can last around 3–5 hours. Short-acting insulins that take 30–60 minutes to start working and have a duration of 5–8 hours. Intermediate-acting insulins that take 1–3 hours to start working but last 12–16 hours.

What gland produces insulin? ›

The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood, and somatostatin, which prevents the release of insulin and glucagon.

What are the two roles of insulin? ›

In the liver, insulin helps promote the transport of glucose from the blood into hepatocytes, where it is further converted to glycogen, fatty acids, and triglycerides. In the skeletal muscles, insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose and amino acids from the bloodstream.

Why is long-acting insulin given at night? ›

Aims/hypothesis: Insulin glargine is a long-acting human insulin analog often administered at bedtime to patients with type 2 diabetes. It reduces fasting blood glucose levels more efficiently and with less nocturnal hypoglycemic events compared with human neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin.

How many units of insulin is normal? ›

The average person will take about 1 unit of insulin for every 12 to 15 grams of carbohydrates consumed. There is some variation to this, depending on how sensitive you are to insulin.

What is the most common insulin for type 2 diabetes? ›

Initial insulin dose — When insulin is started for type 2 diabetes, health care providers usually recommend "basal" insulin; this means taking intermediate-acting and/or long-acting forms of insulin to keep blood sugar controlled throughout the day.

Which insulin is long acting? ›

insulin glargine (Lantus), lasts up to 24 hours. insulin detemir (Levemir), lasts 18 to 23 hours. insulin glargine (Toujeo), lasts more than 24 hours. insulin degludec (Tresiba), lasts up to 42 hours.

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